Wednesday, November 30, 2005

Feast of St. Andrew the Apostle

The Church celebrates the feast of Saint Andrew on November 30, an important date in the annual liturgical calendar, because it determines the date of the First Sunday of Advent, which is the Sunday nearest this Feast. Saint Andrew is the patron saint fishermen, of both Scotland and Russia.

Collect: Lord,
in your kindness hear our petitions.
You called Andrew the apostle
to preach the gospel and guide your Church in faith.
May he always be our friend in your presence
to help us with his prayers.
We ask this through our Lord Jesus Christ, Your Son,
who lives and reigns with You and the Holy Spirit.

Monday, November 28, 2005

Writing Begins Soon

I have recently met with my supervisor and I will be settling into writing by the end of the week, D.V. I think I have what will become my full thesis that will be titled, 'Eucharist and Ecumenism in the Theology of Lancelot Andrewes: Then and Now.' I have quite a bit of work on Andrewes' instrumentality done and I have decided along with my supervisor to make my chapter on presence and instrumentality one chapter. I will also join what was going to be two chapters at the end on Eucharist and Eschatology and Eucharist and Ecumenism into one chapter as well. That will make my thesis five chapters instead of seven, which will allow for my chapters to be a bit longer. My supervisor kindly reminded me that I do have a 100,000 word limit. So, my prayer is that hopefully by this Friday I can launch my opening chapter that will set Andrewes' Eucharistic theology within the context of his ecclesiology where he drew from the undivided Church in the first five centuries to mark out where he developed his thinking.

Then, today, I received a new book on Andrewes written by Dr. Peter McCullough from Lincoln College, Oxford, on selected sermons and lectures that is about 470 pages. This book will be important for the historical work as well as the theological Andrewes. I will begin reading this tomorrow. While skimming it today, I noted that he deals with a sermon that I used as a test case for Andrewes' view of instrumentality that I compared with Calvin on the same passage and argued against modern scholars such as Dr. Brian Spinks that Andrewes was a Calvinist in his view of instrumentality. Dr. McCullough noted that he believes Andrewes was shaped by Chemnitz (Lutheran theologian). The only problem is that there is no internal proof of that thesis and Andrewes' views on sacrifice and presence outside of use would go against a Lutheran framework of sacramentology. But, before coming to any further rash critiques of this, I now have to go and learn Chemnitz really well to make my case. I am confident that I will find similarities but it will be interesting to see if indeed this case can be made. You may note my reluctance. The truth of the matter is that Andrewes never refers to Lutheranism or those before him for his Eucharistic theology. He even has very clear differences with Hooker on instrumentality. A lot of work is still ahead of me and I request all of your prayers during this intense time. I especially need prayers over the next three weeks.

I'll post what I can but it may not be too in-depth for the next few weeks. But, watch this space nonetheless. I will do my best to post Advent themes throughout the season.

[editor's note] I do need to make a quick reference to Andrewes' familiarity with Chemnitz as he uses Chemnitz' Examinis (examination of Trent) to show that Trent did teach a higher view of praying to the Saints than du Perron was actually admitting (found in xi of Andrewes' Works). This familiarity with Chemnitz and his use in this area of Andrewes' use of Chemnitz seems selective. I think Andrewes is looking more to Theodore of Mopsuestia and Pope Gelasius. For instance, Gelasius believed in a Eucharistic change (one that was modeled on the hypostatic union; Andrewes uses this theme at times too) and argued that just as teh human nature after the Incarnation remains complete human nature, so also the Eucharistic elements remained what they had been, truly bread and wine, while becoming the instruments through which the Body and Blood are communicated. (cit. O'Conner The Hidden Manna, 71).

Sunday, November 27, 2005

Advent 1

Stir up thy power, O Lord, and come, that by thy protection we may be rescued from the dangers that beset us through our sins; and be a Redeemer to deliver us; Who livest and reignest with God the Father in the unity of the Holy Spirit, ever one God, world without end. Amen.

Almighty God, give us grace to cast away the works of darkness, and put on the armour of light, now in the time of this mortal life in which your Son Jesus Christ came to visit us in great humility; that in the last day, when he shall come again in his glorious majesty to judge both the living and the dead, we may rise to the life immortal; through him who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit, one God, now and for ever. Amen.

Post Eucharistic Prayer:
O Lord our God, make us watchful and keep us faithful as we await the coming of your Son our Lord; that, when he shall appear, he may not find us sleeping in sin but active in his service and joyful in his praise; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

Thursday, November 24, 2005

Called to Prayer: A Grace-filled Life

God calls all of to prayer and awaits our response. God has made promises to us in Christ Jesus and through prayer we see those promises being lived out. Prayer is often a struggle. It is hard work at times and it takes time out of our very busy schedules for us to pray. Therefore, prayer is a test in a sense. It is a test of faith and our faithfulness to God. God makes promises to us and by faith and we go to Him in prayer to "memorialise" those promises. We may be in prayer due to what seems to be a call to make great sacrifices for our faithfulness and this is part of the mystery of prayer. In that call to sacrifice, prayer helps to restore the image of God in man whereby we are then enabled to go and live out the power of God's love that we experience in prayer. Finally, God renews us in His promises in prayer. Prayer is difficult because prayer is a battle of our faith and as we respond to God's call to come to Him, in prayer, we triumph in perseverence.

Andrewes: A Prayer of Penitence
O Lord, as days unto days, so withal do we add sins to sins. The just man stumbleth seven times a day, but I, a singular great sinner, seventy times seven. Nay but I return unto Thee, O Lord. O Lord Thou lover of man, that hast a golden censer, add me thine incense unto this prayer for a sweet-smelling savour before the throne, and let the lifting up of hands be set forth for an evening sacrifice. Lord the Almighty, all our works Thou hast wrought in us: if we have gotten any good success, receive it favourably, O Lord abundant in goodness and very pitiful: but so many things as we have done amiss, pardon graciously, for our destruction cometh of ourselves. Amen

Preces Privatae
Prayer of Intercession
In peace let us beseech the Lord: for the peace that is from above and the salvation of our souls: for the peace of the whole world, the stability of the holy churches of God and the union of all men: for this holy house and them that with faith and piety enter therein: for our fathers in holy things, the honourable presbyterate, the diaconate in Christ, and all clergy and people: for this holy mansion and every city and country and them that dwell therein in faith: for good temperature of the air, plenteous bearing of fruits of the earth and peaceful seasons: for them that travel by land and by water, the sick, toilworn and captives, and their safety. Help, save, have mercy and preserve us, O God, by thy grace. Commemorating the allholy, immaculate, more than blessed mother of God and evervirgin Mary, with all saints, let us commend ourselves and one another and all our life unto Christ God: unto Thee, O Lord, for unto Thee is due glory, honour and worship. Amen.
Preces Privatae

Wednesday, November 23, 2005

Clement of Rome: Pope and Martyr 101

first Apostolic Father, pope from 88 to 97, or from 92 to 101, supposed third successor of St. Peter. According to the early Christian writer Tertullian, he was consecrated by Peter. Bishop St. Irenaeus of Lyon lists him as a contemporary of the Apostles and witness of their preaching.
"We call upon You, O Master, to be our helper and defender! [Ps. cxix. 114.] Save such of us as are in affliction; have pity on the humble; raise up the fallen; show yourself to such as are in want; heal the sick; convert those of Your people that are in error; feed the hungry; ransom our prisoners; raise up the feeble; comfort the weak-hearted. Let all the Gentiles know that You are God alone [I. Kings viii. 60], and that Jesus Christ is Your Son, and that we are Your people and the sheep of Your pasture. [Ps. c. 3.] You did manifest the perpetual constitution of the universe by Your works therein. You, O Lord, did create the world! You are faithful throughout all generations; You are righteous in Your judgments; You are wonderful in Your strength and splendor; You are wise to create and [ingenious] to establish the things that are made; You are good in Your works which are seen, and faithful with such as put their confidence in You; You are merciful and full of compassion. [Please] forgive us our transgressions and our unrighteousness, our faults and our weaknesses! Impute not to Your servants... all their sin; but cleanse us thoroughly by Your truth, and direct our steps that we may walk in holiness and righteousness and simplicity of heart, and that we may do that which is good and well pleasing in the sight of You and of our rulers. [Ps. cxix. 133; Deut. xiii. 8.] [Please], Lord, cause Your face to shine upon us for blessing [Ps. Ixvi. 2], with peace, that we may be covered by Your mighty hand and be delivered from all sin by Your high arm. [Ex. vi.1.] Save us from them that hate us without a cause. Grant peace and concord to us and all that dwell upon the earth, as You gave it unto our fathers when they called upon You in faith and truth with holiness; that we may obey Your almighty and all-holy Name, and render submission to our rulers and governors upon the earth."

Roman Catholics and the Rochester Report

FiF has posted the response of the Roman Catholic Church to the Rochester Report and the consecration of women to the episcopacy. The FiF site states that,
The ordination of women bishops in the Church of England would, the response makes clear, ‘undoubtedly create a major additional obstacle to any future full communion with the Roman Catholic Church, and might further impair the degree of communion already existing.’ The response further notes that the Rochester Report admits that the Church of England is very far from having reached a common mind about the ordination of women to the priesthood, and that opposition to that development has not shown any indications of dying away.
The full text of it may be found here. It would be nice to get some discussion on it.

Tuesday, November 22, 2005

The Mystery of Prayer

My devotional life is about to turn its focus to prayer in the Christian life. I am looking forward to this new theme now having looked at the Commandments. Prayer is celebrated in the sacramental liturgy of the Church and brought to the life of the faithful so that we might become conformed to Christ in the Holy Spirit to give glory to God our Father. Prayer is something Christians believe in. It is what we do and celebrate. It is our prayer that we live from that gives expression to that living union we have with Jesus Christ our Lord. What is prayer? St. Therese of Liseiux describes prayer like this:
For me, prayer is a surge of the heart; it is a simple look turned toward heaven, it is a cry of recognition and of love, embracing both trial and joy.
This definition does get at the heart of prayer. What is so mysterious about this definition is the recognition of love that embraces both trial and joy. That gets at the heart of the mystery of prayer in the Christian's life. I will periodically offer some reflections for those who read here that will hopefully encourage us all. Today I offer a prayer for the Church from the heart of Lancelot Andrewes' Preces Privatae.
For the Catholic Church: for the churches throughout the world: their truth, unity and stability, to wit: in all let charity thrive, truth live: for our own church: that the things that are wanting therein be supplied, that are not right be set in order. That all heresies, schisms, scandals, as well public as private, be put out of the way: correct the erring, convert the unbelieving, increase the faith of thy church, destroy heresies, expose crafty enemies, crush violent enemies....Amen.

Monday, November 21, 2005

Dr. Leander Harding's Ordination Story

The Rev'd Dr. Leander Harding teaches Sacraments at TESM in Pittsburgh, PA USA and gives the following account of his ordination. He was speaking to his students on ordination: ontological vs. functional. Here is a portion:
The service went on and I shared the canon of the Eucharist with the bishop. We processed out of the church and stood by the door. I was quite overcome with emotion and put my hands to my face. The smell of the oil was strong and a balm and I breathed it in. I was dimly aware of someone calling my name and I spread my hands just a bit and looked down to see the bishop kneeling at my feet. “May I have your blessing, Father.” I was completely undone and utterly humbled. It was at that moment that the reality of ordination came thundering in upon me. I was nothing, had nothing, had done nothing, could do nothing but hang on to Him and pronounce His blessing and marvel at the calling and promises of God. One by one every person in the congregation knelt for an individual blessing. It was as if something were being hammered into my soul. It was death and then dying again and again and again. I cried all the tears I had before the end of the line of people came. I thought I couldn’t go on and I did. Pure grace. Really the whole ministry was there in those few minutes. “A broken and contrite heart, I will not despise.” It was as they say real. God grant it shall be so to the end of my days. One can only marvel at the treasures that God conveys through earthen vessels and broken hearts.
read the rest here.

De Lubac 'Eucharistic Ecclesiology'

In my surfing around the I-Net for new Eucharistic articles this evening I came across this article in the Anglican Theological Review by Lisa Wang. It is a very helpful and insightful survey of De Lubac's works and it makes me all the more anxious for the forthcoming publication of Corpus Mysticum this next summer. In her article Sacramentum unitatis ecclesiasticae: The eucharistic ecclesiology of Henri de Lubac Anglican Theological Review, Winter 2003 Lisa Wang writes,
De Lubac's criticism with regard to this gap or loss of connection between the sacramental presence of Christ and the community of his faithful was an issue that was first raised in Catholicism. In that work he deplored the prevailing theological emphasis on the need to demonstrate a real presence, because it detracted from the symbolism of unity in the eucharist. This symbolism carries a further significance, described in Corpus Mysticum, with reference to the mystical body of Christ: "corps auquel se refere mystiquement et qu'enveloppe mystiquement le symbole du pain" (p. 69). In this context it is notable that the phrase corpus mysticum corresponded roughly to sacramentum (mysterium) corporis (p. 95), that is, the body which is present "in mysterio" or liturgically, "sous les apparences materielles ou rituelles qui le signifient mysterieusement" (p. 68). The unitive symbol of the bread directs our attention both to the memorial and the eschatological aspects of the body of Christ offered in the eucharist, "in mysterio panis, in mysterio passionis, in mysterio nostro" (pp. 83-84). Thus, as the oblation of the eucharist is made, we look backwards to the Passion, as well as forward to our own unity in the one body, when we come together for the liturgical celebration of this "mystery."

This suggests that there are two things at work in the eucharist as we experience it: one is the act of Christ's sacrifice offered for us, and the other is that of our own communication or participation in it.8 De Lubac's understanding of the eucharist is therefore much more actionoriented than object-oriented. This is why he observes, in reference to the patristic period, that "bien des textes concernant l'Eucharistie seraient compris plus a fond et que certains d'entre eux offriraient moins de difficultes d'exegese aux defenseurs de la 'presence reelle,'" if they would bear in mind that "la perspective essentielle de ces textes n'est pas celle d'une presence ou d'un objet, mais celle d'une action et d'un sacrifice" (p. 78). "Ce n'est acunement, d'une facon direct, le lien entre le corps du Christ considere 'en soi' et les 'especes sacramentelles' qui est vise" (p. 79). Rather, it is the link between the presence of Christ in the eucharist and the reality of the cross.

De Lubac, then, would seem to be saying that, in terms of the different elements of the sacrament, what is contained under the sign of the sacrament of the eucharist is Christ himself in his very sacrifice on the cross. Yet this in turn is at the same time the sign of a deeper reality, one which de Lubac quotes Augustine in order to convey: "'Quando Christus manducator, Vita manducator.' Il transforme en lui-meme ceux qu'il nourrit de sa substance. Il est lui-meme le corps dont ceux qui le mangent deviennent l'aliment" (pp. 200-201). This recalls the Augustinian notion mentioned in de Lubac's Catholicism: "I am your food, but instead of my being changed into you, it is you who shall be transformed into me." In receiving the body of Christ in the eucharist, we receive life-we receive him-in such a way that we are transformed.
The first paragraph is really essential to my present thinking of a future chapter on Andrewes: Eucharist and Eschatology that this paragraph really helps to bring some of the issues in Andrewes' writing to light for me as well as what will be my final chapter on Andrewes: Eucharist and Ecumenism. Read the rest of the article here.

Saturday, November 19, 2005

The Credible Kingship of Jesus

Archbishop of Canterbury visits Gordon Square

Forward in Faith today welcomed the Archbishop of Canterbury to its national headquarters at Christ the King, Gordon Square. Dr Williams was the preacher at the 10th annual Solemn Mass for the eve of Christ the King arranged by the London and Southwark Branches of FiF and a congregation of over 650 was present to hear him.

In his homily, the Archbishop said that, in a play, it is not the man who gets the part who plays the King; it is those around him who, by their actions, reveal his Kingship. So it should be with us. By our worship, by our thought and speech, we make credible the Kingship of Jesus before the world and, turning convention on its head, he demands that by service of the lowliest and neediest we proclaim his Kingship in them. Finally, in the Church, even in times of division and strife, we 'play the King' for Jesus, when we recognise his royal presence in all the baptised.

Read the rest here.

The Battle For Purity

One need only to walk the streets of the West (Europe or America) to see that all of us are in a spiritual battle that is just dire. One cannot even pull up the I-Net to view FoxNews or BBC without a Victoria Secret advertisement on the front page. It is a war where the snipers of the culturally free seize every opportunity to undermine modesty and purity. Freedom is no longer being free to obey the law. Rather, freedom is to allow everyone to express her/himself as one wishes. It is a heavy burden on the shoulders of us all. Everywhere we turn, whether to TV, Newspapers, from advertisements to sell butter or insurance, is accomplished through some sort of sensual and sexual medium. The truth of it all is that we are numb to it. We are sensitised to this and potentially drawn into the trap to "re-think" modesty. Often the biggest fear today is being labelled a fundamentalist or legalist in these areas. But that is just a ploy to get Christians to back away from the challenge to the secularised world that is intent on destroying any boundaries for humans whatsoever and in effect is destroying humanity and civilisation quite quickly. In thinking about a broad catholicity of spirituality of late, I have been looking at a number of sources and one has been the Catholic Catechism on the Ten Commandments. On the Ninth Commandment that we have recently covered in our family worship we find the following challenge for the battle of purity.


2520 Baptism confers on its recipient the grace of purification from all sins. But the baptized must continue to struggle against concupiscence of the flesh and disordered desires. With God's grace he will prevail

- by the virtue and gift of chastity, for chastity lets us love with upright and undivided heart;

- by purity of intention which consists in seeking the true end of man: with simplicity of vision, the baptized person seeks to find and to fulfill God's will in everything;312

- by purity of vision, external and internal; by discipline of feelings and imagination; by refusing all complicity in impure thoughts that incline us to turn aside from the path of God's commandments: "Appearance arouses yearning in fools";313

- by prayer:

I thought that continence arose from one's own powers, which I did not recognize in myself. I was foolish enough not to know . . . that no one can be continent unless you grant it. For you would surely have granted it if my inner groaning had reached your ears and I with firm faith had cast my cares on you.314 (Augustine)

2521 Purity requires modesty, an integral part of temperance. Modesty protects the intimate center of the person. It means refusing to unveil what should remain hidden. It is ordered to chastity to whose sensitivity it bears witness. It guides how one looks at others and behaves toward them in conformity with the dignity of persons and their solidarity.

2522 Modesty protects the mystery of persons and their love. It encourages patience and moderation in loving relationships; it requires that the conditions for the definitive giving and commitment of man and woman to one another be fulfilled. Modesty is decency. It inspires one's choice of clothing. It keeps silence or reserve where there is evident risk of unhealthy curiosity. It is discreet.

2523 There is a modesty of the feelings as well as of the body. It protests, for example, against the voyeuristic explorations of the human body in certain advertisements, or against the solicitations of certain media that go too far in the exhibition of intimate things. Modesty inspires a way of life which makes it possible to resist the allurements of fashion and the pressures of prevailing ideologies.

2524 The forms taken by modesty vary from one culture to another. Everywhere, however, modesty exists as an intuition of the spiritual dignity proper to man. It is born with the awakening consciousness of being a subject. Teaching modesty to children and adolescents means awakening in them respect for the human person.

2525 Christian purity requires a purification of the social climate. It requires of the communications media that their presentations show concern for respect and restraint. Purity of heart brings freedom from widespread eroticism and avoids entertainment inclined to voyeurism and illusion.

2526 So called moral permissiveness rests on an erroneous conception of human freedom; the necessary precondition for the development of true freedom is to let oneself be educated in the moral law. Those in charge of education can reasonably be expected to give young people instruction respectful of the truth, the qualities of the heart, and the moral and spiritual dignity of man.

2527 "The Good News of Christ continually renews the life and culture of fallen man; it combats and removes the error and evil which flow from the ever-present attraction of sin. It never ceases to purify and elevate the morality of peoples. It takes the spiritual qualities and endowments of every age and nation, and with supernatural riches it causes them to blossom, as it were, from within; it fortifies, completes, and restores them in Christ."315

Thursday, November 17, 2005

Blessed are the Pure of Heart

Matthew 5:8 "Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God.
Matthew 15:19 For out of the heart come evil thoughts, murder, adultery, fornication, theft, false witness, slander.

St. Augustine in De fide et symbolo writes,
The faithful must believe the articles of the Creed "so that by believing they may obey God, by obeying may live well, by living well may purify their hearts, and with pure hearts may understand what they believe."
The pure in heart are given a promise from God that they will see him face to face and be like him. Purity of heart is the precondition of the vision of God. It allows us to live the life of Christ and to see the world and others (our neighbours) according to God. The purity of heart opens our eyes to see our own bodies and the bodies of others as temples of God with the indwelling Holy Spirit that is the manifestation of the beauty of God. Dr. Albert S. Rossi has a good explanation of purity of heart here. This is especially crucial in our sexually explicit culture in Western Europe and in the Americas. It is all around the world but quite prominent in the West. Purity of heart is essential for all peacemaking. With all the presentcontroversy on sexuality surrounding the Church, join me today in offering these prayers to God.

Collect for purity:
Almighty God, unto whom all hearts are open, all desires known, and from whom no secrets are hidden; Cleanse the thoughts of our hearts by the inspiration of thy Holy Spirit, that we may perfectly love thee, and worthily magnify thy holy Name; through Christ our Lord. Amen.

St. Thomas Aquinas
Dearest Jesus! I know well that every perfect gift, and above all others that of chastity, depends upon the most powerful assistance of Thy Providence, and that without Thee a creature can do nothing. Therefore, I pray Thee to defend, with Thy grace, chastity and purity in my soul as well as in my body. And if I have ever received through my senses any impression that could stain my chastity and purity, do Thou, Who art the Supreme Lord of all my powers, take it from me, that I may with an immaculate heart advance in Thy love and service, offering myself chaste all the the days of my life on the most pure altar of Thy Divinity.

Wednesday, November 16, 2005

Pusey on the Reality of Baptism

Thus then our Baptism is the real, not merely figurative, grafting of us into Christ. Therein, as we are taught in the first rudiments of our faith, "we are made members of Christ." And most significantly does Baptism itself point to that mysterious participation which it gives us in the acts of Christ. Still more significant indeed, when, as in early times, the Sacrament was administered by immersion. For in the waters of Baptism we die and are buried and come forth cleansed, born again into a pure and holy life; the going down into the Baptismal waters being an emblem of our death and burial, and the coming up from the Baptismal water being an emblem of the resurrection. Baptism is an emblematic acting over again of the Death and Resurrection of Christ in us; significantly pointing to the interior mystery, "buried with Him in Baptism, wherein also we are risen with Him through faith of the operation of God, Who raised Him from the dead."

And now then more particularly to apply this great doctrine. In one sense, sin has been slain in all of as one part of conformity to Christ's Death has been effected in us all. For it may be assumed that we have all received Holy Baptism. We have all probably received it as infants, when there was in us no actual sin to form a bar or hindrance to the efficacy of that Holy Sacrament. And what then is this Baptism which we have received? It is a death unto sin. It is the being buried with Christ in His Death. And surely, brethren, this is an awful gift to have received. It is a fearful thing to have been brought into such close contact with the mysterious Death of our Lord; nay, to have bad that very death acted over again within us. How little do many Christians think of this-even the most thoughtful too little. Let us strive to recall such thoughts as may have filled our mind, in the solemn season of Holy Week-when the Passion of our Lord has been so vividly presented to the mind. Then we think of it as an awful thing to have stood by the very Cross of Jesus to have been so very near that great mystery—the Death of the Son of God of God manifest in the flesh: and yet in truth, my brethren, we have all individually been nearer to that mystery than they who with their bodily eyes beheld it—nearer than were the Blessed Virgin Mother and the beloved disciple. For we have died with Him—we have been nailed to His Cross-we have been bathed with the Blood which flowed from His Wounds. O then, brethren, what all exceeding fearful thing it is to be a Christian; to have had done in us and upon us that which has been done in and upon us all. Hence we may learn of what exceedingly terrible import are those words of Scripture, "the crucifying of the Son of God afresh, and the treading under foot the Son of God, and the counting the Blood wherewith we have been sanctified all unholy thing." What is this but the very sin of those who, having been baptized into His Death, live in sin? We call all of us appreciate the guilt of sin when connected with a religious profession. It would shock most, for instance, to think of one receiving the Sacrament of Christ's Body and Blood, and then straightway committing the sin of drunkenness, or fornication, or other gross iniquity. But consider how near their sin comes to this, who have come forth from the purifying waters of Baptism only to wallow in the mire of sin-, who have received the very mark of the dying of the Lord Jesus; nay, have become partakers of His Death, and yet with the Blood of sprinkling upon them, deny the Lord that bought them, and live a life of worldliness or pleasure, in forgetfulness of God!

A Course of Sermons on Solemn Subjects chiefly bearing on Repentance and Amendment of Life, Preached in St. Saviour's Church, Leeds,During the Week after its Consecration on the Feast of S. Simon and S. Jude, 1845.

Read it all here.

Canon Arthur Middleton on Andrewes

This was found in New Directions November, 2005.
Lancelot Andrewes, who was consecrated Bishop of Chichester on 3 November 1605, had a reputation for saintliness and scholarship.

With Hooker, he recoiled from the popular systems and traditions, which under Elizabeth had claimed to interpret exclusively the English Reformation. They identified the true and positive basis of Anglican theology, sharing ‘that devotional temper, those keen and deep devotions of awe, reverence and delight, which arise when the objects of theological thought and interest are adequately realised according to their greatness by the imagination and the heart’ (Dean Church).

True theology is always mystical, always a spirituality expressing a doctrinal attitude whose roots lie in the praying and worshipping Church. For Andrewes, devotion and theology are not opposed; the one cannot be conceived without the other. Spirituality means the experience in the Church of the union of man with God and is not an individualistic pietism. Andrewes’ theology is not a speculative, intellectual system about God, but the translating of this ecclesial experience into terms that can be used to transmit it. It is a vision of God, not a system of thought; a theology that can be preached, and must be understood from within that ecclesiological context and not reduced to pure polemics or ideology.

His sermons represent the true mind of the English Church where his aim is to convert his hearers to this ecclesial experience of God in the rectitude of the lex credendi (the rule of faith), which must be in profound harmony with the lex orandi (the rule of prayer). He does not merely quote the Fathers, but has integrated their essential attitude to theology itself, which is not thinking about God but translating into intelligible terms the experience of life in God. The ‘mind of the Fathers’ is what makes Andrewes himself a Father of the Church, because he has acquired their essential attitude to theology that characterizes the patristic mind. This ecclesial context embraced both East and West because Andrewes encountered in himself the convergence of East and West, succinctly expressed in his Private Devotions where he prays ‘for the whole Church Catholic, Eastern, Western, our own.’

His theological base is, ‘One canon reduced to writing by God himself, two testaments, three creeds, four general councils, five centuries, and the series of Fathers in that period...determine the boundary of our faith.’ Anglican authority rests on Scripture and the Primitive Church, holding as de fide neither more nor less than the Fathers. This is not antiquarianism because Andrewes admits subsequent developments when not de fide.

He provided a standard within the history of the Church identifying the pure norm of faith in the New Testament and in the Fathers. Continuity with antiquity places the Anglican Church in the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church. His primitivism does not retreat into simple conservationism but is a dynamic process, transcending ordinary time without destroying it. It is living in time in the light of eternity, recapitulating past, present, and future in contemporaneity with the Gospel.

He led his contemporaries into a theology of adoration, self-surrender and blessing.

Newman Tract 2 the One Holy and Catholic Church

Bear with me, which I express my fear, that we do not, as much as we ought, consider the force of that article of our Belief, "The One Catholic and Apostolic Church." This is a tenet so important as to have been in the Creed from the beginning. It is mentioned there as a =fact,= and a fact =to be believed,= and therefore practical. Now what do we conceive is meant by it? As people vaguely take it in the present day, it seems only an assertion that there is a number of sincere Christians scattered through the world. But is not this a truism? who doubts it? who can deny that there are people in various places who are sincere believers? what comes of this? how is it important? why should it be placed as an article of faith, after the belief in the HOLY GHOST? Doubtless the only true and satisfactory meaning is that which our Divines have ever taken, that there is on earth an existing Society, Apostolic as founded by the Apostles, Catholic because it spreads its branches in every place; i.e. the Church Visible with its Bishops, Priests, and Deacons. And this surely =is= a most important doctrine; for what can be better news to the bulk of mankind than to be told that CHRIST when He ascended, did not leave us orphans, but appointed representatives of Himself to the end of time?

"The necessity of believing the Holy Catholic Church," says Bishop Pearson in this Exposition of the Creed, "appeareth first in this, that CHRIST hath appointed it as the only way to eternal life. . . . CHRIST never appointed two ways to heaven, nor did He build a Church to save some, and make another institution for other men's salvation. There is none other name under heaven given among men whereby we must be saved, but the name of JESUS; and that name is no otherwise given under heaven than in the Church." "This is the congregation of those persons here on earth which shall hereafter meet in heaven. . . . There is a necessity of believing the Catholic Church, because except a man be of that he can be of none. Whatsoever Church pretendeth to a new beginning, pretendeth at the same time to a new Churchdom, and whatsoever is so new is none." This indeed is the unanimous opinion of our divines, that, as the Sacraments, so Communion with the Church, is "generally necessary to salvation," in the case of those who can obtain it.

If then we express our belief in the existence of One Church on earth from CHRIST's coming to the end of all things, if there is a promise it shall continue, and if it is our duty to do our part in our generation towards it continuance, how can we with a safe conscience countenance the interference of the Nation in its concerns? Does not such interference tend to destroy it? Would it not destroy it, if consistently followed up? Now, may we sit still and keep silence, when efforts are making to break up, or at least materially to weaken that Ecclesiastical Body which we know is intended to last while the world endures, and the safely of which is committed to our keeping in our day? How shall we answer for it, if we transmit that Ordinance of GOD less entire that it came to us?

Monday, November 14, 2005

Global South Anglican

There is now a site up on the Global South Anglicans that will allow for readers to keep up with what is going on in that part of the Anglican Communion.

blogs and "haranguefests"

Sometimes being inside the four walls of a room full of books all day can bring one to the point of feeling disconnected or even insane at times. So, you take a trip around blogoworld only to find people who are on a perpetual "haranguefest." One begins to wonder if the only sane place is within the walls of the books! Or is it that some people are just so paranoid that they feel the need to put rear view mirrors on their stationary bikes?

Friday, November 11, 2005

++Rowan Williams answering questions in Egypt

There has been a lot of ink poured out over the controversies in the Anglican Communion about where the Church of England was going to come down on the issue of human sexuality. Fielding questions in a very open and honest dialogue, ++Williams answers this question with the following answer: Human sexuality and authority
Q1. We are all sinners who fall short of the glory of God and we should never use language that demeans another human being. Granting all these, do you believe that same-sex sex can be holy and blessed? If so, on what authority do you base this belief?

A1: The church overall, the church of England in particular, the Anglican communion has not been persuaded that same-sex sex can be holy and blessed. Were it to decide that by some process unimaginable to most of you it would be by an overwhelming consensus. Only at that point would it be possible to say in the name of the church, this is holy and blessed. So I take my stand with the church of England, with the communion, with the majority of Christians through the ages. I have in the past raised questions about this. I was a theological teacher for 17 years and along with other theological teachers raised this issue and discussed it. I have advance ideas on this in the past, but the fact remains that the church is not persuaded, and the church is not William’s personal political parties, or any particular persons. I am loyal to the church which has asked me to serve, and I myself hold if I am asked about doctrine and discipline, this is what the church upholds. So, the authority that I accept has to be the authority of the whole body and that part of the body which is the church of England and the Anglican communion has made its determination.
Read the rest of his questions and answers here.

Olde World Family Heritage

My dear friend and former member of my parish when in the States has a business that deals with Historically Authentic Heraldry Coats of Arms, Clan Crests, and Family Histories. He does excellent work and I can attest to it as he gave me one of these when I parted the States and moved to Durham, England. I want to recommend his work for two reasons but one in particular. One, he does excellent as you can see from his site. Two is that they were victims of the hurricane that hit Biloxi, Mississippi this past summer that devastated his business that he moved there one week prior to the hurricane. Now they are living in Western Texas. One way that you could support the Lindsays is to fill his time with orders from his web site for work on your own family heritage. Do me and Robby a favour; send this link to everyone you know and get him some business going! This is one way that you can be charitable this Christmas all the while getting wonderful Christmas gift for your family and friends.

Also, if you would please, place the link on your blog so that Robby and his family's business will become more widely known. I am doing this out of love for a fellow Christian who has had a rough go of it lately and needs our support. I hope you enjoy his site and thank you for taking the time to visit it.

St. Martin of Tours

by his life and death
Martin of Tours offered you worship and praise.
Renew in our hearts the power of your love,
so that neither death nor life may separate us from you.
Grant this through our Lord Jesus Christ, your Son,
who lives and reigns with you and the Holy Spirit,
One God, for ever and ever. Amen.

Gospel: Matthew 25:31-40
"When the Son of man comes in His glory, and all the angels with Him, then He will sit on His glorious throne. Before Him will be gathered all the nations, and He will separate them one from another as a shepherd separates the sheep from the goats, and He will place the sheep at His right hand, but the goats at the left. Then the King will say to those at His right hand, 'Come, O blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world; for I was hungry and you gave me food, I was thirsty and you gave me drink, I was a stranger and you welcomed me, I was naked and you clothed me, I was sick and you visited me, I was in prison and you came to me'. Then the righteous will answer him, 'Lord, when did we see thee hungry and feed thee, or thirsty and give thee drink? And when did we see thee a stranger and welcome thee, or naked and clothe thee? And when did we see thee sick or in prison and visit thee?' And the King will answer them, 'Truly, I say to you, as you did it to one of the least of these my brethren, you did it to me'".

Wednesday, November 09, 2005

Praying before Prayer

I don't know if any of you are like me, but I get so frustrated in my prayer life when my mind wanders and I begin to think of things I need to do whilst uttering prayers to God. I find myself repenting of my prayers! Here is a great prayer that Andrewes would pray before he prayed that I intend to use each day before I pray. I am sure it will help me to keep focused.
O Almighty and everliving God, heavenly Father, to whom it is manifestly known, how inconstant and wandering the minds of men are, in any good actions; and how easily we suffer ourselves to be carried away from the contemplation of thee, by diversity of distractions, and unseasonable thoughts, which take hold of us, in the time of our devotions and prayers unto thee; who also, by thine only begotten Son Christ Jesus, didst prescribe unto his disciples a form of prayer to be offered up to thee, and hast derived the same from them to us. Behold me, most wretched sinner, wholly depraved and corrupt, entreating thee, by the same Son, that for his sake thou wouldest infuse thy Holy Spirit into me, which may adopt me into the number of thine elect: that it may teach me how I ought to pray, according to thy holy will: that it may allay all troublesome and wandering thoughts in me, while I offer up my prayers and praises unto thee: suffer me not to serve thee with my lips, and be absent in heart from thee: but create a right spirit within me, that I being sensible of all thy graces and comforts, may with a joyful and holy zeal, perform my duty to thee: that so, my prayers and desires may appear before thee; and in thy Son’s name, I may effectually be heard, and my petitions may be granted, to the glory and honour of thy most holy name, and the endless comfort of mine own soul, through the same, our only Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. Amen.

Tuesday, November 08, 2005

Andrewes/Leo XCVI Sermons: A Connection?

Laud and Buckeridge are responsible for the assimilating and publication of what came to be known as the XCVI Sermons of Lancelot Andrewes. There is much debate today among scholars about the ‘avant-garde’ conformists and accusations of Arminian leanings in England amongst those who became known as the Caroline Divines. The latter is something that I would take serious issue with but will leave it for another time. What I want this entry to do is to draw the readers’ attention to something that I read tonight as I was taking a second look at Dr. Peter McCullough’s article on Laudianism and Andrewes’ Works called ‘Making Dead Men Speak: Laudianism, Print, and the Works of Lancelot Andrewes, 1626-1642.’ In this article, Dr. McCullough writes something that really puzzled me and was quite insightful. I offer it for your own thoughts as to what was intended here. It’s very interesting so do read it:
But if Laud and Buckeridge could pick and choose, why ninety-six sermons? Is the title simply descriptive of the random number that the editors claimed they ‘found perfect’? Search for a precedent for their liturgical arrangement may suggest yet another Laudian gloss over them. The absence of any English precedents, with the exception of medieval homiletic collections like John Mirk’s Liber festialis, leaves patristic models as possible exemplars. The only patristic sermons cited by early modern preachers, including Andrewes himself, from collections arranged liturgically were those by St. Bernard of Clairvaux and Pope Leo the Great. Is there any connection? Perhaps. For since the middle ages the Leonine canon has consisted of epistles numbering 432, and sermons numbering exactly 96. Is this a crowning gesture in Laud and Buckeridge’s bibliographical effort to place Andrewes, their latter-day ‘Primitive Bishop’, among the ranks of the fathers? The concurrence of both the arrangement and number of Andrewes’s and Leo’s ninety-six sermons seems at least a remarkable coincidence, especially given the sympathies between Leo’s life and works and Andrewes’s own. Leo’s epistles and sermons insisted on the importance of the outward observance of religious customs in the cycle of feasts and fasts. Doctrinally, his nativity sermons in some ways defined the western church’s teaching on the incarnation. As a bishop he combined strict enforcement of uniformity with deference to imperial power. And these hallmarks of Leo’s life and writings match precisely the over-riding concerns in Andrewes that link him with Laudianism: an intense Christocentrism that insisted upon the universality of grace, a strict enforcement of liturgical uniformity, and a high view of the efficacy of prayer, alms, and fasting. Andrewes himself cited Leo regularly in his own sermons to underscore precisely these points. Nothing else in XCVI sermons guides the reader to a possible allusion to Leo’s ninety-six, but there is some evidence that at the least in Laud’s Oxford a ‘Leo’ was a slang term for an avant-garde conformist who rhapsodized about the authority of the ancient Catholic fathers. 413, 414.

Monday, November 07, 2005

Eucharistic Meditations

I am absolutely worn out from reading in Calvin's Opus from the Institutes on the Eucharist and his commentary on Isaiah 6.6,7. I did this for six hours straight today. Therefore, instead of giving the readers a host of Latin (just kidding, wouldn't do it) I thought a meditation from St. John Vianney The Cure of Ars would be more edifying.

The Love of Jesus Christ in the institution of the Eucharist is revealed: I. By the Gift He thereby makes to us.
By the Eucharist he feeds his children, not with ordinary food, nor with the manna by which the Jewish people were fed in the wilderness, but with his sacred Body and his precious Blood. Who could ever think of such a thing if it were not himself who says it, and, at the same time, brings it to pass? Has the tenderness of a father, or a king's generosity to his subjects, ever been known to go so far as that of Jesus Christ in the Sacrament of our altars? Parents leave their goods to their children in their wills, but in the testament of Jesus Christ, they are not temporal goods that he bequeaths to us; it is he who gives us himself with his divine riches. Is not this veritable prodigality of a God for his creatures? Oh, how worthy are these marvels of our wonder and our love! A God, having taken our weakness upon him, makes himself the food of our souls. O people of Christendom, how blessed are you in having so good and so rich a God!

Sunday, November 06, 2005

Anthony Milton: Elizabethan and Jacobean Church

In his scholarly research of the Elizabethan and Jacobean Church in England, Anthony Milton writes these comments about the climate of the day [1600-1640].
All groups in the Jacobean Church found it of value in justifying the break with Rome. It provided a powerful, self-evident condemnation of the pope and Church of Rome which could serve as a short-cut through the wearisome and hazardous labyrinth of Romanist/Protestant doctrinal controversies. 98

It had a central role to play in the Gospel message which must be brought to all Romanists, who must be told that it was acknowledged by their own papal divines that Rome is Babylon, 'and it is averred that this is the present Papall Monarchie, that out of this they must depart by the Commands of our Lord Jesus Christs owne Voyce, under paine of being an accessary to all her sinnes, and lyable to ail her punishments'. Not only was the argument clearer than on many other issues, but the words of Revelation stressed that all those living in Babylon were damned unless they could recognize that the pope was Antichrist and depart from him accordingly. 99

The notion that the pope was Antichrist, then, commanded the intellectual assent of the Elizabethan and Jacobean Church, and the chronological, apocalyptic interpretation of church history which it spawned was widely accepted and was (in Christianson's words) 'embodied at presupposition level' in works on other issues. This is not to suggest, however, that this consensus amounted to a uniformity of belief regarding the details and importance of the doctrine, or concerning its implications for secular politics or for the formulation of other doctrines. 100

The apocalyptic framework confirmed the argument that relations with Rome could only ever be those of inevitable and perpetual conflict. 102

Puritan practical divinity sought to make dynamic use of the division of the world into the elect and the reprobate. Puritan devotional writers called upon the individual believer to make his election sure, and to join the purified ranks of the community of the fellow-godly, in opposition to the wickedness of the ungodly mass outside. The more that this dualistic doctrine of the Two Churches featured in apocalyptic thought, the more tempting it was to translate its stark antithesis of good and evil, true and false churches, directly into the division between the two earthly churches of Rome and Protestantism. 103

Thus, just as experimental predestinarians worked on the active assumption that the true church of the elect was coterminous with the community) of the godly (while formally accepting that the identities of the elect and reprobate are known only to God), so in the apocalyptic tradition the false church came increasingly to be identified more exclusively with the power of Rome. 104

The perception of Rome as the false church increased the pressure for a confessional foreign policy, and for a radical breach with the forces of Roman Catholicism. On the doctrinal plane, Rome's identity as Babylon was held to unchurch the Roman communion, leaving no possibility of salvation for those still within her. In social terms, it led to demands that Protestants refrain from all conversation and friendship with recusants, and even to avoid living in the same neighbourhood 104
Milton concludes,
Jacobean compromise - can be explained in part by the success of the Laudians determined attempt to force these groups apart, and to destroy the ideological cement of the English Church. In the process, the Laudians helped to tarnish the established Church of England, while their rewriting of the Reformation settlement helped to prompt a more urgent and sceptical review of the legislative basis on which the English Church rested. Nevertheless, if the Laudians ultimately achieved some success in forcing moderate puritans and conforming Calvinists apart, it was because this was a division that was already well underway. If the religious centre fell apart in the early 1640s, the reason lay partly in its own loss of coherence over the previous decades. 546
To argue that there was some sort of ecclesial coherence in the English Church's history is simply far-reaching. Some scholars have questioned why Andrewes was able to get by with his liturgical practices and ecclesial views and I believe it is due to the incoherence of the previous decades since the breaking of papal authority by Henry VIII. The reason why the Laudians were able to tarnish the "established Church of England" was due to the fact that there was yet to be an "established" liturgical and sacramental England. There is enough blame to go around for what followed in the 1640's and to put it all on the Laudians is only to show how one-sided England's ecclesial history has often been portrayed.

Friday, November 04, 2005

Lancelot Andrewes: 400th Year since Consecration

I have not been blogging because I was away for the past three days in Oxford and went to London on Thursday evening to celebrate the consecration of Lancelot Andrewes who is buried in the east end of Southwark Cathedral. He was first consecrated as bishop of Chichester on 3 November 1605. There was evensong followed by a great lecture by Professor Nicholas Lossky from the University of Paris. He has been looking at Andrewes for 52 years. He is now an Eastern Orthodox deacon and is soon to be priested. There were many scholars who attended and I was accompanied by Dr. Marianne Dorman who was so gracious in her hospitality while with her in Oxford. It was also a real blessing to meet Dr. Peter McCullough from Lincoln College, Oxford who has a new book on Andrewes' works that is to be launched in December from O.U.P. Though, it is always good to be home.

Tuesday, November 01, 2005

Theology for the Church

Nicholas Lossky in his book on the preaching of Lancelot Andrewes captures the theological mind of Andrewes and how he approaches the study of theology. This is such a great quotation I had to blog it.This takes away all attempts to Gnostic approaches to studying theology and says something about "preaching services" developed out of the responses to the Counter Reformation. For Andrewes it was novel to make the primary focus on Sunday the sermon. He would have seen it as neo-Gnostic.
For Andrewes, an authentic witness to the apostolic faith is not simply someone who is content to think more or less correctly. It is someone who, like him, has made deeply his own the experience of the Church. It is someone for whom theology is not a system of thought, an intellectual construction, but a progression in the experience of the mystery, the way of union with God in the communion of the Church. In this perspective, theology is for the understanding an ascetic way, a way of the cross, by which it empties itself of itself, of its own content, in order to be made transparent to the light of grace and adapted to contemplation of divine things. Theology is then for the service of the entire man on his way towards union with the personal God, the way of deification. It is this most profound experience of the Church that the theologian expresses in the Church and for the Church. Theology is then a service of the Church, and not an exercise of private reflection on God. 345

All Saints Day

[We rejoice and keep festival in honour of all the saints]Collect: God our Father, source of all holiness,the work of Your hands is manifest in Your saints, the beauty of Your truth is reflected in their faith. May we who aspire to have part in their joy be filled with the spirit that blessed their lives,so that having shared their faith on earth may we also know their peace in your kingdom. Grant this through Christ our Lord. Amen.

"The glorious company of the apostles praise Thee.
The goodly fellowship of the prophets praise Thee.
The white-robed army of martyrs praise Thee.
All Thy saints and elect with one voice do acknowledge Thee,
O Blessed Trinity, one God!"
Antiphon at Lauds. from the Te Deum

Sermon for All the Saints
Gregory Thaumaturgus
Grant thy blessing, Lord.

It was my desire to be silent, and not to make a public display of the rustic rudeness of my tongue. For silence is a matter of great consequence when one's speech is mean. And to refrain from utterance is indeed an admirable thing, where there is lack of training; and verily he is the highest philosopher who knows how to cover his ignorance by abstinence from public address. Knowing, therefore, the feebleness of tongue proper to me, I should have preferred such a course. Nevertheless the spectacle of the onlookers impels me to speak. Since, then, this solemnity is a glorious one among our festivals, and the spectators form a crowded gathering, and our assembly is one of elevated fervour in the faith, I shall face the task of commencing an address with confidence. And this I may attempt all the more boldly, since the Father requests me, and the Church is with me, and the sainted martyrs with this object strengthen what is weak in me. For these have inspired aged men to accomplish with much love a long course, and constrained them to support their failing steps by the staff of the word; and they have stimulated women to finish their course like the young men, and have brought to this, too, those of tender years, yea, even creeping children. In this wise have the martyrs shown their power, leaping with joy in the presence of death, laughing at the sword, making sport of the wrath of princes, grasping at death as the producer of deathlessness, making victory their own by their fall, through the body taking their leap to heaven, suffering their members to be scattered abroad in order that they might hold their souls, and, bursting the bars of life, that they might open the. gates of heaven. And if any one believes not that death is abolished, that Hades is trodden under foot, that the chains thereof are broken, that the tyrant is bound, let him look on the martyrs disporting themselves in the presence of death, and taking up the jubilant strain of the victory of Christ. O the marvel! Since the hour when Christ despoiled Hades, men have danced in triumph over death. "O death, where is thy sting! O grave, where is thy victory?" Hades and the devil have been despoiled, and stripped of their ancient armour, and cast out of their peculiar power. And even as Goliath had his head cut off with his own sword, so also is the devil, who has been the father of death, put to rout through death; and he finds that the selfsame thing which he was wont to use as the ready weapon of his deceit, has become the mighty instrument of his own destruction. Yea, if we may so speak, casting his hook at the Godhead, and seizing the wonted enjoyment of the baited pleasure, he is himself manifestly caught while he deems himself the captor, and discovers that in place of the man he has touched the God. By reason thereof do the martyrs leap upon the head of the dragon, and despise every species of torment. For since the second Adam has brought up the first Adam out of the deeps of Hades, as Jonah was delivered out of the whale, and has set forth him who was deceived as a citizen of heaven to the shame of the deceiver, the gates of Hades have been shut, and the gates of heaven have been opened, so as to offer an unimpeded entrance to those who rise thither in faith. In olden time Jacob beheld a ladder erected reaching to heaven, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon it. But now, having been made man for man's sake, He who is the Friend of man has crushed with the foot of His divinity him who is the enemy of man, and has borne up the man with the hand of His Christhood, and has made the trackless ether to be trodden by the feet of man. Then the angels were ascending and descending; but now the Angel of the great counsel neither ascendeth nor descendeth: for whence or where shall He change His position, who is present everywhere, and filleth all things, and holds in His hand the ends. of the world? Once, indeed, He descended, and once He ascended,--not, however, through any change of nature, but only in the condescension of His philanthropic Christhood; and He is seated as the Word with the Father, and as the Word He dwells in the womb, and as the Word He is found everywhere, and is never separated from the God of the universe. Aforetime did the devil deride the nature of man with great laughter, and he has had his joy over the times of our calamity as his festal-days. But the laughter is only a three days' pleasure, while the wailing is eternal; and his great laughter has prepared for him a greater wailing and ceaseless tears, and inconsolable weeping, and a sword in his heart. This sword did our Leader forge against the enemy with fire in the virgin furnace, in such wise and after such fashion as He willed, and gave it its point by the energy of His invincible divinity, and dipped it in the water of an undefiled baptism, and sharpened it by sufferings without passion in them, and made it bright by the mystical resurrection; and herewith by Himself He put to death the vengeful adversary, together with his whole host. What manner of word, therefore, will express our joy or his misery? For he who was once an archangel is now a devil; he who once lived in heaven is now seen crawling like a serpent upon earth; he who once was jubilant with the cherubim, is now shut up in pain in the guard-house of swine; and him, too, in fine, shall we put to rout if we mind those things which are contrary to his choice, by the grace and kindness of our Lord Jesus Christ, to whom be the glory and the power unto the ages of the ages. Amen.
    O God, most glorious, most bountiful, accept, we humbly beseech thee, our praises and thanksgivings for thy holy Catholic Church, the mother of us all who bear the name of Christ; for the faith which it hath conveyed in safety to our time, and the mercies by which it hath enlarged and comforted the souls of men; for the virtues which it hath established upon earth, and the holy lives by which it glorifieth both the world and thee; to whom, O blessed Trinity (+), be ascribed all honour, might, majesty and dominion, now and for ever. Amen.
    --Bishop Lancelot Andrewes

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