Saturday, July 30, 2005

figura et res, veritas et figura

It is no secret that Lancelot Andrewes denied the doctrine of transubstantiation of the Tridentine theology yet he expressed a view of ‘symbol’ that is often not understood by many who read Andrewes. There is often confusion expressed by scholars when reading Andrewes that they are not sure how definable he is in his sacramental theology. In the conclusion of the second chapter of my thesis I write, “Andrewes is not a ‘symbolic instrumentalist’ in the same sense in which Calvin is defined, rather he is what I have coined an ‘effectual instrumentalist’ who defines instrumentality based upon the continuity of the sacrament with the symbol. There is no hiatus, the Eucharist IS the Body and Blood and the Sacrifice offered on behalf of the sins of the whole world. There is no doubt in the mind of Andrewes about the reality of the whole Christ in the Sacrament. The Eucharist contains and communicates the reality of all that Christ is for His people. The Sacrament gives us the knowledge of and participation in the life of Christ.” ©Jeffrey Steel 2005.

I have been trying to put my finger on this concept with more understanding and I remembered Schmemann’s little book, For the Life of the World and his section on Sacrament and Symbol. He said something there that really has caught my attention in trying to nail Andrewes down in sacramental views. It is no secret that Andrewes was steeped in the theology and writings of the patristic Fathers. Schmemann said something that made me stop and consider a possible theory from which to exercise Andrewes's thought on this topic. Speaking of the post-patristic problem of how symbol was understood Schmemann gives his understanding of the problem in sacramental theology.

(I would love to hear from my Catholic friends who read this blog. If you have any insights or thoughts on the view of symbol here, please feel free to comment. Pass on any good books you may have read on symbol as well. I am looking for a copy of Raymond Firth on symbolism to add some more sociological and philosophical thoughts on symbolism.)

For your thoughts, I quote from Schmemann here:

There remained, however, the problem of the signum whose relation to the “res” of the sacrament had to be defined in a new way. For if it is not a symbol what is it? Post-patristic theology answered this question by defining signum as cause and it is here that the notion and probably the experience of the sacrament suffered its deepest transformation. In the early tradition, the causality inherent in the sacrament, the sanctification it procures for those who partake of it, is inseparable from its symbolism for it is rooted init. This in no way limits or contradicts the unique cause of all sacraments—their institution by Christ—for, as we have said already, the institution is precisely the fulfilment of a symbol by Christ and, therefore, its transformation into a sacrament. It is thus an act, not of discontinuity, but of fulfilment and actualization. It is the epiphany—in and through Christ—of the “new creation,” not the creation of something “new.” And if it reveals the “continuity” between creation and Christ, it is because there exists, at first, a continuity between Christ and creation whose logos, is life, and light He is. It is precisely this aspect of both the instution and sacrament that virtually disappear in post-patristic theology. The causality linking the institution to “signum” to “res” is views as extrinsic and formal, not as intrinsic and revealing. Rather than revealing through fulfilment, it guarantees the reality of the sacrament’s effect. Even if, as in the case of the Eucharist, the sign is completely identified with reality, it is experienced in terms of the sign’s annihilation rather than in those of fulfilment. In this sense the doctrine of transubstantiation, in its Tridentine form, is truly the collapse, or rather the suicide, of sacramental theology. If this new understanding of causality—as an extrinsic and formal guarantee—breaks the ontological continuity between the sign and the “res,” it also rejects, de facto, all continuity between “institution” and the normal order of things. It is indeed discontinuity that is now being stressed and affirmed. Considered as the “causa principalis” of the “signum” as “causa secunda,” institution becomes now an absolute starting point of a sacramental system entirely sui generis. And the efforts b some recent theologians to bring back into the notion of “signum” the “richness of traditional symbolism” concern the “accidents,” not the “substance” in the doctrine and understanding of sacraments…

It is when they were exalted and glorified as supreme reality that began the progressive alienation from them of theology, ecclesiology, and eschatology, an alienation which—whether it is understood or not—is at the origin of today’s crisis, the source and the poison of “secularism”…As means of individual piety and sanctification they preserved all their “value.” As catholic acts of the Church fulfilling herself as symbols in “this world” of “the world to come,” of the consummation in God of all things—they were simply forgotten.” Schmemann (144-145).


Blogger Pontificator said...

My one question about Schmemann's ontology of symbol is whether it truly allows the difference between an icon and the eucharistic Body and Blood. It's all wonderful to say that all of created reality is iconic, etc.; but the Church has also wanted to assert a more realisitic identification of the consecrated elements with our Lord's Body and Blood. Hence the insistence of II Nicaea that the Eucharist is not an icon of the Body and Blood but is the Body and Blood.

Ultimately, faith in the eucharistic presence is not evidenced by our theories. It is evidenced by the way we behave at the Eucharist. Are we willing to prostrate ourselves before the Blessed Sacrament? Do we pray *to* Christ in the Sacrament? Do we consume the elements at the conclusion of the liturgy or do we return them to the sacristy to be used again? Etc.

8:15 pm  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Points taken, Fr. Al. But those are questions that come after some doubt as to presence, hence the emphasis to begin speaking of "real" as opposed to NOT real.

Andrewes spoke of the Eucharist as an epiphany and I know this to be an Orthodox way of speaking. The Eucharist doesn't stop being the reality that it is. But, what the patristics did do was to keep the discussion of the Eucharist within the place of the rite and its celebration. It was celebremus and epulemur. The question for me is, what is taken away from the Eucharist when we remove it from its rite[ful] place of "theologizing?" We don't think about the Eucharist, we do it.

8:32 pm  
Anonymous William Tighe said...

Do you know these two items, neither one of which concern Andrewes at all,but bothofwhich make important carefuldistinctions?

First, *Zwingli and Cranmer on the Eucharist (Cranmer Dixit et Contradixit)* by Cyril C. Richardson (!949). This was a very judicious assessment of Cranmer's stance, after the controversy between Dom Gregory Dix and the Rev'd G.B. Timms in the pages of *Church Quarterly Review* in 1946 and 47. There were copies of this important piece available at www.abebooks.com some months ago.

Second, *Calvin and Bullinger on the Lord's Supper* by Paul Rorem (1988). This was originally published in two successiveissues of *Lutheran Quarterly* in 1988 and published in booklet form in 1989 by Grove Books (Nottingham).

I know that this is somewhat marginal to the point of your posting,but you might find them of interest.

1:26 pm  
Anonymous J. Gordon Anderson said...

My favorite theologian who spends quite a lot of time discussing symbol is Avery Dulles. In "Models of Revelation" he explains his theory of revelation as being "symbolic mediation", that is, mediated through symbols. So then, he goes into great detail discussing the idea of symbol as it has been explained and understood by himself and others, such as Tillich and Ricoeur. A symbol is a multivalient reality in which the clues draw attention to themselves (as opposed to pointing to something else). We surrender to them and are, in a sense, swept away by them. They help us bring many experiences, meanings, and memories into a kind of focus, he says. Only symbols can adequetly express the manifold meaning of something like the eucharist (Mascall talks about this in "Christ, the Christian, and the Church"). So the eucharist must be a symbol. That does not mean it is not something "real", or like Schemmann says, they have not been instituted by Christ. Dulles includes a long quote by John Macquarrie that illustrates the many different levels and dimensions of the Holy Eucharist. I won't quote it here because it is too long. But in short, only a symbol - the Breaking of Bread - can sufficiently begin to encompass the depth of the Incarnation and Pascal Mystery.

Another Dulles book where he discusses symbolism a great deal is "The Craft of Theology: From Symbol to System". Great stuff!

4:10 pm  
Anonymous William Tighe said...

Have you read these two very interesting essays on Andrewes (especially the first one)?

"Lancelot Andrewes and the Myth of Anglicanism" by Nicholas Tyacke, in *Conformity and Orthodoxy in the English Church, ca. 1560-1660* ed. Peter Lake and Michael Questier (Boydell Press, 2000).

"Lancelot Andrewes, John Buckeridge, and avant-garde conformity at the court of James I" by Peter Lake, in *The Mental World of the Jacobean Court* ed. Linda Levy Peck (Cambridge University Press, 1991).

Both are well worth reading. Tyacke's article shows that as early as the early 1580s, when he was still in most respects a Calvinist, Andrewes was critical of the liturgical arrangement of most Elizabethan churches.

5:41 pm  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Professor Tighe,

Thanks for the note. I have both of these that are to be read by me this week as I am using both for my first chapter that introduces Andrewes in the late Elizabethan and early Stuart period. The first book is $104 US! I actually had to put in a request for the first one.

I question the claim that Andrewes was a Calvinist and have just tried to prove that in what is to be my second chapter on Andrewes' instrumentalism of the Eucharist. This is also clear in his discussion of the Hampton Court Conference concerning the Lambeth Articles. What some scholars have done is reduce Puritanism to sabbatarianism and since many drew from Andrewes' teaching here, he erroneously gets labeled by some in this way. Knappen does the same thing in his article in Church History (1933) 'The Early Puritanism of Lancelot Andrewes.' The real engagement of Andrewes is put forth when he comes under James I and I was happy to see that Lossky views it this way as well.

Reading his views of liturgy, and the sacraments and many sermons in the late C16, I find it hard to place him within a Calvinist framework. Possibly Lutheran, but not Calvinist. I have especially found this to be the case in his writings in Apospasmatia Sacra. I will get both of these read this week and I'll post something on them when I do. Both Lake and Tyacke are historical giants in this period and it is hard to keep up with them!

What especially in the liturgy did they believe Andrewes had problems? I know he liked a more Godward direction of the eucharistic offering. He liked the 1549 BCP more than the 1559.

7:15 pm  
Anonymous William Tighe said...

I think it is not so much a case that Tyacke and Lake see Andrewes s having "problems" with the 1559 BCP liturgy, as that they see Andrewes' emphasis on the communion itself as effecting the remisson of sins (and with his emphasis on the "oblationary" aspect of the Eucharist -- which, btw, would be distinctly unLutheran) as contrary to the teaching of the divines of the Church of England since 1559. (Tyacke sounds the same notes in his essay on "Archbishop Laud" in *The Early Stuart Church, 1603-1642* ed. Kenneth Fincham; Macmillan Press Ltd., 1993). Lake is an atheist, but it seems a very Protestant atheist, and while I know nothing whatsoever about Tyacke's own religious commitments (if any), he does take a view of "Anglican History" from 1559 (or 1547) that portrays the Carolines (and their predecessors such as Andrewes, Buckeridge and perhaps Neill) as absolute innovationists.

I am perfectly willing (and would be personally pleased) to see Andrewes' Calvinism disproved (or reduced to sabbatarianism). My recollection is, that while Lake simply assumes Andrewes early Calvinism in his article, Tyacke actually argues the case.

I would be interested in your reaction to the two articles.

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    O God, most glorious, most bountiful, accept, we humbly beseech thee, our praises and thanksgivings for thy holy Catholic Church, the mother of us all who bear the name of Christ; for the faith which it hath conveyed in safety to our time, and the mercies by which it hath enlarged and comforted the souls of men; for the virtues which it hath established upon earth, and the holy lives by which it glorifieth both the world and thee; to whom, O blessed Trinity (+), be ascribed all honour, might, majesty and dominion, now and for ever. Amen.
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